2017-05-11 08:37 亚洲开发银行研究院
原文标题：Insurance for Micro, Small, and Medium-Sized Enterprises
中文摘要：亚洲开发银行研究院专家Chatterjee Arup Kumar和Wehrhahn Rodolfo在《中小微企业保险》一文中介绍了包括保险在内的风险管理提升在改善融资渠道方面的重要作用。在发展中国家，正规的中小企业界正在与庞大的非正规行业竞争。将非正规的中小企业转入正规经济是非正规程度高的国家的首要日程。使中小微企业正规化需要改善世界银行的“经商”参数并提供金融激励。近期，提升低收入人群获取保险的特别规定得以制定，但是为中小微企业提供保险所做的努力甚少。然而，现有大多数保险规则下的保险产品无法满足一些中小微企业的需求。提升保险的可获取性在降低贫困人口和中小微企业面临的风险方面能够发挥巨大作用。合理的风险管理可以降低风险形成的几率。由于中小微企业固有的风险范围较大，很多企业无法实现商业保险，开发专项基金为无法投保的风险提供金融支持可以提升保险的价值，有助于中小微企业整体的抗风险能力。（编译：罗婧婧）
This brief looks at the important role that better risk management, including insurance, can play in improving access to finance.
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are a key component of every economy. Studies fill the literature with the importance of SMEs as employment generators, innovators, factors in the supply chains of larger enterprises, and important contributors to gross domestic project.
In developing countries, the formal SME sector is competing with a large informal sector. Moving informal SMEs into the formal economy tops the agenda in countries where informality is high. Improving on the World Bank’s “doing business” parameters and providing fiscal incentives is needed to formalize the MSME sector, as are attractive financial sector solutions that support government agendas for a gradual reduction of informality.
Recently, special regulation has been developed to improve access to insurance for low-income people, but little effort has been made in insurance for MSMEs. Nonetheless, some MSME needs call for insurance products that cannot be offered under most existing insurance regulations.
Access to insurance can play a significant role in mitigating risks faced by poor households and micro, small, medium enterprises (MSMEs) by smoothening consumption, building assets, absorbing shocks, and managing risks associated with irregular and unpredictable income. Yet, standard insurance services are out of reach of the millions of the poor and disadvantaged.
Proper risk management reduces the likelihood that risks will materialize and, if it does, insurance reduces or eliminates the financial impact. Insurance can make MSMEs resilient to shocks, making them more financially sound.
Tailor-made regulation on insurance products that specifically target SMEs will contribute to increased uptake. For successful uptake of the MSME insurance, it is essential that products offered should add value and are affordable to targeted consumers.
Since MSMEs inherently face a broad spectrum of risks, many of which are commercially uninsurable, the development of a special fund to provide financial support for uninsurable risks can enhance the value of insurance and contribute towards MSME industry resilience.