2017-04-21 08:43 布鲁金斯学会
原文标题：Closing the financing gap for African energy infrastructure: Trends, challenges, and opportunities
中文摘要：布鲁金斯学会专家Amadou Sy和Amy Copley在《消除非洲能源基础设施融资缺口：趋势、挑战与机遇》一文中说，2013年，为解决非洲能源基础设施需求而筹措到的资金估计已达到80亿美元。在这些投资中，内部公共资金占近一半，其他为外部资金，包括私人参与基础设施（PPI）、官方开发性金融（ODF）和中国投资。然而，满足非洲能源基础设施需求估计所需成本之高令人惊愕，仅2013年总共就需要约630亿美元。仍有约550亿美元的资金缺口未得到解决。不过，这些合计数据掩盖了为非洲能源基础设施建设提供资金的主体、方式和地点。本文分析了非洲能源基础设施融资各个来源的趋势和优缺点，包括内部公共投资、PPI、ODF和中国融资。此外，本文主张，尽管资本和有利可图的项目缺乏对扩大非洲基础设施融资构成重大障碍，特别是对可再生能源项目而言，但应该探索解决问题的方案：在项目早期阶段，让开发银行加大参与力度，而把低风险的项目后期工作留给私人资金。（编译：刘小云）
Lack of energy access presents a formidable, but not insurmountable, challenge to African development. Energy poverty afflicts nearly 620 million people in Africa, limiting economic opportunities and creating health risks through the use of low-cost, alternative energy sources, such as wood fuel (IEA 2014). Without access to secure, reliable sources of electricity, households, businesses, schools, and hospitals cannot operate effectively, reducing quality of life and restricting human capital. As acknowledged in the global sustainable development agenda, addressing these energy needs is fundamental to achieving economic and human development objectives. African governments and their partners in the private sector and international development community have taken this to heart as can be seen by the growing policy attention and resources they are allocating to the continent’s energy sector.
Financing to address Africa’s energy infrastructure needs is estimated to have reached $8 billion in 2013 (APP 2015). Domestic public financing comprised nearly half of these investments while external financing—including private participation in infrastructure (PPI), official development finance (ODF), and Chinese investments—accounted for the rest. Still, the estimated cost of contending with Africa’s energy infrastructure needs is staggering, amounting to approximately $63 billion in 2013 alone. This still leaves a financing gap of approximately $55 billion unresolved (APP 2015).
Yet, aggregate figures like these obscure understanding of which actors are financing energy infrastructure, how, and where across the continent. The following paper analyzes the trends, strengths, and weaknesses of various sources of energy infrastructure financing in Africa—including domestic public domestic investment, PPI, ODF, and Chinese financing. Furthermore, it contends that although lack of both capital and bankable projects poses a significant obstacle for expanding infrastructure financing in the continent, particularly for renewable energy projects, a solution involving a greater participation of development banks in the earlier stage of projects and leaving private funds to finance the less risky, latter stages of projects should be explored.
Trends in African energy infrastructure financing
Financing sources for African energy infrastructure include domestic financing by African governments and external financing in the form of ODF from multilateral institutions (such as the African Development Bank and the World Bank, as well as most of the OECD-DAC donors), PPI, and Chinese financing.
In terms of the breadth of its financing sources, the energy sector is comparable to the transportation sector in the sense that it relies on a combination of financing from governments, ODF, China, and PPI (see Table 1). Other sectors, such as the telecommunications (telecom) sector depend predominantly on a reduced number of financing sources—in this case, private sector investments. A closer look at the transportation sector suggests, however, that some subsectors rely on fewer financing options than others. This trend also appears to be the case in the energy sector where the private sector is mostly interested in the generation subsector, leaving investment in the transmission and distribution (T&D) subsectors to other financiers such as African governments and China.