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从中国制造到中国创新:必要性、前景和挑战

2016-12-01 16:06 美国国家经济研究局

摘要:就创新增长的动力而言,文章发现,在世界经济中获得更广阔的市场机会并应对日益上升的人工成本是两大主导力量。另一方面,文章发现创新领域资源错配的证据:国有公司接受越来越多的补贴,而创新成果越来越多的来自于私有企业。如果资源错配的问题得到解决,中国创新的步伐会向前走的更快。

08-45-17-51-1

原文标题: From "Made in China" to "Innovated in China": Necessity, Prospect, and Challenges

中文摘要:美国国家经济研究局专家Shang-Jin Wei等在《从中国制造到中国创新:必要性、前景和挑战》一文中说,经过30多年基于人口红利和市场改革开放的高速增长,中国正面临工资上涨和劳动力下降的十字路口。未来的经济增长必然要更多的依赖于生产力的提高,而国内创新力将是重要的一环。本文评估了中国转型的可能性。通过分析研发开支和专利申请等数据并使用引证的方法,作者指出,中国经济已经变得越来越具有创新性。就创新增长的动力而言,文章发现,在世界经济中获得更广阔的市场机会并应对日益上升的人工成本是两大主导力量。另一方面,文章发现创新领域资源错配的证据:国有公司接受越来越多的补贴,而创新成果越来越多的来自于私有企业。如果资源错配的问题得到解决,中国创新的步伐会向前走的更快。(编译:刘小云)

原文:

After more than three decades of high growth that was based on an exploration of its low-wage advantage and a relatively favorable demographic pattern in combination with market-oriented reforms and openness to the world economy, China is at a crossroad with a much higher wage and a shrinking work force. Future growth by necessity would have to depend more on its ability to generate productivity increase, and domestic innovation will be an important part of it. In this paper, we assess the likelihood that China can make the necessary transition. Using data on expenditure on research and development, and patent applications, receipts, and citations, we show that the Chinese economy has become increasingly innovative. In terms of drivers of innovation growth, we find that embracing expanded market opportunities in the world economy and responding to rising labor costs are two leading contributing factors. On the other hand, we find evidence of resource misallocation in the innovation area: while state-owned firms receive more subsidies, private firms exhibit more innovation results. Innovation can presumably progress even faster if resource misallocation can be tackled.

w22854.pdf

责任编辑:刘小云

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