2016-10-24 14:40 欧洲政策研究中心
原文标题：Does Wallonia’s veto of CETA spell the beginning of the end of EU trade policy?
中文摘要：欧洲政策研究中心（比利时）专家Guillaume Van der Loo和Jacques Pelkmans在《瓦隆否决CETA意味着欧盟贸易政策的终结吗?》一文中表示，近日，比利时法语地区(瓦隆)主席兼大臣保罗·马涅特(Paul Magnette)代表其政府拒绝支持联邦比利时政府签署具有里程碑意义的欧盟─加拿大综合性经济与贸易协定(CETA)。因此，10月18日贸易委员会无法通过签署并初步履行该协议的决议，进而将阻止欧盟在布鲁塞尔举行的欧盟─加拿大峰会上签署该协议。虽然CETA的反对者对马涅特先生顽固的反对表示称赞，但是欧盟委员会和所有的成员国对这一举动深感失望。这一否决不仅说明了比利时联邦体系的复杂性和超现实性，还揭示了欧盟层面的更根本的问题，不禁让人质疑欧盟签订任何具有前景的贸易协定的能力。本文讨论了更广泛的背景以及欧盟自由贸易协定的未来。（编译：刘小云）
Last Friday, Paul Magnette, the Minister-President of the francophone region of Belgium (Wallonia), declined to give the consent of his government to the federal Belgian government to sign the landmark Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between the EU and Canada. As a consequence, the Trade Council, meeting on October 18th, was not able to adopt the decision to sign and provisionally apply the agreement, which in turn will prevent the EU from signing the agreement next week at the EU-Canada Summit in Brussels. This veto evoked the image of Wallonia as the provincial village where Asterix, the titular hero of the French comic book series, fiercely resisted the entire Roman Empire.
While the opponents of CETA praised Mr Magnette’s stubborn ‘non’, the European Commission and all the member states, including the federal Belgian and Flemish governments, expressed deep frustration with this move. But the veto not only illustrates the complex – and sometimes surreal – federal system in Belgium, it also reveals a much more fundamental problem at EU level, calling into question the EU’s ability to conclude any ambitious trade deal. After first dispelling the concerns and objections of the Walloon government (and other opponents) to CETA, we discuss the wider context and the future of EU free trade agreements (FTAs).
Under Belgium’s constitutional system, all five regional governments must give their consent to the federal government to sign a trade agreement. In addition to fearing increased competition for Walloon farmers, the socialist minister-president also cited the well-known concerns of the anti-CETA camp, such as the investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) mechanism and the potential negative impact on EU food safety, social and environmental standards. Domestic political factors also played an important role. For example, it was actually the centre-left francophone opposition parties at federal level, which are in charge of the two regional governments in Wallonia, that prevented the centre-right federal government from signing CETA. It is still hoped that a last-minute deal can be struck before Friday’s European Council by further tweaking the so-called joint interpretative declaration, a document proposed earlier this month by the European Commission and Canada, with the aim of satisfying the remaining critics of the trade deal. This declaration offers a diplomatic solution that would obviate the need to reopen the Treaty itself, but Mr Magnette has already indicated that this will not be enough, insisting that his government and the Walloon parliament will need more time to properly discuss and address their remaining concerns.