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南亚水资源、生态系统、能源跨境合作

2016-07-07 09:09 皇家国际事务研究所

摘要:尽管南亚各国政治和经济各有差异,但围绕水资源的合作是可行的。为了培育更广阔的伙伴关系,这些国家需要不同形式的共同行动计划及对威胁和合作带来利益的共同理解。

原文标题:Water, Ecosystems and Energy in South Asia: Making Cross-Border Collaboration Work

中文摘要:皇家国际事务研究所专家Gareth Price在6月30日发布的《南亚水资源、生态系统、能源跨境合作》一文中表示,南亚国家共享世界上一些主要的河床--恒河、布拉马普特拉河和印度河。这些河流及支流流经七个国家,为10亿人口提供水资源,灌溉数百万公顷的田地,并有着重要的文化意义。文章指出,尽管南亚各国政治和经济各有差异,但围绕水资源的合作是可行的。为了培育更广阔的伙伴关系,这些国家需要不同形式的共同行动计划及对威胁和合作带来利益的共同理解。(编译:刘小云)

原文:

The countries of South Asia share some of the world’s major river basins - the Ganga (or Ganges), the Brahmaputra and the Indus. These rivers and their tributaries flow through seven countries, support more than 1 billion people, irrigate millions of hectares of land and are of cultural importance to many of those who rely on them.

■River management presents common challenges across the region. These include physical factors such as droughts, flooding, cyclones and climate change, as well political and institutional factors impeding the development of solutions and policies to improve resource management and reduce vulnerability. Water is increasingly seen as a source of competition, with population growth, industrialization and urbanization exacerbating the pressures on supply.

■Although South Asian examples of regional cooperation in general are limited, there is a clear positive trend. In areas such as disaster response and cross-border power trading, regional and bilateral engagement is beginning to take place. Multilateral official arrangements exist for trade and other economic issues, but there is none on water or ecosystems. However, as the benefits from cooperation become proven, its desirability is likely to gradually enter mainstream policy thinking on water issues.

■This research paper sets out the factors that have enabled cooperation, and the processes adopted, in previous successful cross-border projects. It focuses on four categories of cooperation: development of early-warning systems for natural disasters, in particular floods; protection of cross-border ecosystems; sharing of learning, through the showcasing of innovative approaches in one country that can be adopted by others; and power trading, in particular the development of hydropower in Bhutan and its export to India.

■The paper argues that cooperation around water in South Asia is feasible despite political differences and economic asymmetries. Different forms of collective action, and common understanding of both the threats and the shared benefits from cooperation, are required to foster more partnerships within the river basin states.

责任编辑:刘小云

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