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背井离乡:阿富汗难民危机及其对欧洲的意义

2016-05-12 17:24 欧洲对外关系委员会

摘要:为阻止阿富汗难民入境,欧洲需要向亚洲合作伙伴寻求帮助,不仅要与喀布尔方面合作,还要与阿富汗周边邻国携手,尤其是中国、巴基斯坦、印度和伊朗。欧洲可以帮助协调难民返回阿富汗安全区域相关事宜、协助喀布尔制定连贯的移民政策,并为阿富汗国内无家可归者提供援助,以防他们被迫越境。

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原文标题:Eternally displaced: Afghanistan’s refugee crisis and what it means for Europe

中文摘要:《背井离乡:阿富汗难民危机及其对欧洲的意义》,欧洲对外关系委员会亚洲与中国项目政策研究员Angela Stanzel于5月10日发布。文章认为,为阻止阿富汗难民入境,欧洲需要向亚洲合作伙伴寻求帮助,不仅要与喀布尔方面合作,还要与阿富汗周边邻国携手,尤其是中国、巴基斯坦印度伊朗。欧洲可以帮助协调难民返回阿富汗安全区域相关事宜、协助喀布尔制定连贯的移民政策,并为阿富汗国内无家可归者提供援助,以防他们被迫越境。与其他亚洲国家合作改善阿富汗在该地区的处境将至关重要。伊朗、巴基斯坦以及印度和中国都希望看到阿富汗局势稳定。特别是对中国而言,让阿富汗成为其“一带一路”基建项目的核心部分可以提振经济,而且中国可以继续向巴基斯坦施压,让塔利班回到谈判桌上。(编译:刘小云)

原文:

Afghans are the second biggest group claiming asylum in Europe, and their numbers are set to keep rising. To stem the influx of Afghan refugees, Europe needs to turn to Asian partners, working not only with Kabul but with its neighbours - particularly China, Pakistan, India, and Iran - argues “Eternally displaced: Afghanistan’s refugee crisis and what it means for Europe”.

2015 was the bloodiest year in Afghanistan since the US invasion, with a resurgent Taliban forcing civilians to flee their homes. This year’s “Spring Offensive” by the militant group points to more violence ahead.

The Kabul government is struggling even to count those who move across its uncontrolled borders, let alone tackle people smugglers, house the internally displaced, or support refugees who return.

Europe has a moral responsibility to act, and major interests at stake. The broader refugee crisis is straining ties within the EU, and Afghanistan is suffering a brain drain: a disproportionate number of those who make it to Europe are the educated middle classes, who will be vital for the country to rebuild itself.

Europe can help by coordinating the return of refugees to safe areas of the country, supporting Kabul to develop a coherent migration policy, and targeting aid at the internally displaced so that they aren’t forced to cross borders. It will be crucial to work with other Asian governments to improve the situation of Afghans in the region - many come to Europe after months or years in Iran or Pakistan, driven out by conflict or lack of opportunities in these neighbouring countries.

These countries - along with India and China, the region’s biggest powers - have a major interest in Afghanistan’s stability. Beijing in particular can boost the economy by making Afghanistan a core part of its One Belt, One Road infrastructure project, and can keep up the pressure on Pakistan to bring the Taliban to the negotiating table.

The paper’s author, Angela Stanzel, said:

“The hopes that Afghans put in the future of their country at the time of the 2014 elections have been dashed. Its prospects in terms of security, politics, and the economy are poor, and getting worse. As long as there is no improvement, refugees will continue to come to Europe, and it will be hard to resettle those who return.”

“The EU and its member states should commit to long-term humanitarian aid, development assistance, and military presence. This would be a signal to Afghans that they will not be abandoned - and also to militant groups such as ISIS and the Taliban. Not least, it would be a signal to those in Afghanistan who are at crossroads in deciding whether to join militant groups, to leave the country, or to stay and help to rebuild.”

“Actors in the region - especially China, India, Iran, and Pakistan - will play a crucial role in determining Afghanistan’s future. They share with Europe an interest in Afghanistan’s stability: in averting civil war, economic collapse, massive refugee flows, and displacement. The security and development they can help to deliver is an essential part of any long-term effort to manage the flow of migrants to Europe.”

责任编辑:刘小云

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